Architecture is the art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures. Early architecture evolved out of man’s desire for a shelter and was limited to his know-how and materials available.
Shiraz-the “City of Roses and Nightingales”Shiraz epitomizes the spirit of Iran. It is the “House of Poets” and home to numerous serendipitous gardens. Two of Persia’s most famous sons, 13th and 14th c. poets Sa’adi and Hafez, are buried in delightful gardens in the city and are visited by numerous admirers who pay homage to their wisdom and literary genius. Excellent houses and mosques from past centuries along with the 18th century main and nomadic bazaars, add to the charm of the city.
When Shah Abbas decided at the end the sixteenth ce3ntury to make Esfahan his capital, he started building on what was virtually an open site. The clutter of houses which had now grown up round the Friday mosque and the bazzar were left as they stood; the new city began where the old one left off, again to the south and west, on the site of the present Meydan-e-Emam. The Meydan was planted at a spot where the life of Esfahan as it stood would flow through it; it was to be the meeting place of monarch and citizens.
The 17th century Safavid capital referred to as “Nesf-e-Jahan” (Half the World) by the Persians, is where today, the climax of Persian architecture can be witnessed in the serene purity of its grandiose mosques and elegant palaces. The ancient city gained political significance under the mighty Saljuqs in 11th and 12th centuries. The superb congregational Mosque of Esfahan dates mainly from this glorious period, having many earlier parts and later additions, earning it the title “the encyclopedia of Persian Mosque”. The great Safavid monarch, Shah Abbas I, moved his capital to Esfahan in 1598, where he lay out a new city center with a vast central square adorned on each side with a remarkable monument, the majestic Imam and Sheikh Lotf-o-LLah Mosque, the reception and gateway palace of Ali-Qapu, and the Qeisarieh Bazaar.
The mausoleum of Oljaytu was constructed in 1302–12 in the city of Soltaniyeh, the capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, which was founded by the Mongols. Situated in the province of Zanjan, Soltaniyeh is one of the outstanding examples of the achievements of Persian architecture and a key monument in the development of its Islamic architecture. The octagonal building is crowned with a 50 m tall dome covered in turquoise-blue faience and surrounded by eight slender minarets. It is the earliest existing example of the double-shelled dome in Iran. The mausoleum’s interior decoration is also outstanding and scholars such as A.U. Pope have described the building as ‘anticipating the Taj Mahal’.
Bisotun is located along the ancient trade route linking the Iranian high plateau with Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Ilkhanid periods. The principal monument of this archaeological site is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription ordered by Darius I, The Great, when he rose to the throne of the Persian Empire, 521 BC. The bas-relief portrays Darius holding a bow, as a sign of
The Historical site of Tagh-e Bostan or (Taq-e Bostan) is situated in Kermanshah City in Iran. Taq means an Arch and Bostan means A very beautiful garden. Thus, Taq-e Bostan means an Arch of a very beautiful garden. The appellation of taq or arch here refers to two ancient arch from Sassanid dynasty in Iran. Tagh-e Bostan is consists of the big arch, small arch and a plate of stone inscription outside the cave. These two arches have been carved out of stone in the mountain. Outside the big cave there are two winged angels holding a medallion. Inside the cave there are many carvings including a big horse and a rider which is “Khosro Parviz” the king of Iran in Sassanid period.
Takhte Soleyman or Adur Gushnasp (Azar Goshnasb) is situated in 45km away from Takab a city in West-Azarbayejan of Iran. This place is based on a natural sediments of a lake and is 20m above the height of the agricultural fields. The Siege of this site has 38 ornate towers in elliptic shape. Inside the Takht-e soleyman there is a natural lake with 120 m of length and 80 m of wideness.
This Magnificent Monastery is situated in north-west of Iran in east-Azarbayejan and it is 16 km away from the City of Jolfa. The building belongs to the 8th century. This monastery is also called “the monastery of the sunset valley” in local language.
Chogha Zanbil is One of the greatest elamite buildings and the remnants of ancient history of mesopotamia. This great fortress was originally a temple and is situated in South-west of Iran in Province of Khuzestan near the Susa city.
This region is ripe with ancient history of Iran and mesopotamia. Chogha Zanbil is one of those fascinating places. At the first glance it is like a fortress built near the River Dez which is a big branch of Karoun River.